Laruelle, François. “Le concept d’une ‘technologie première’” in Gilbert Simondon: une pensée de l’individituation et la technique. Paris: Albin Michel, 1994. 206-219.
The Concept of a “First Technology”
A “Unified Theory” of Technics and Technology
In order to define the object of which we speak and to set its limits in our discourse, also in order to define a certain relation to the work of Simondon or Heidegger—the two greatest philosophers of technics—we will make two distinctions whose relevance or non-relevance will be demonstrated by their capacity or incapacity to “found” a new discipline called “first technology.” This distinction is expressed thus: a science rather than a philosophy or a “human science” of technics, but a science of the essence of technics, not of technical properties or facts. Thus our object in the constitution of Simondon and Heidegger’s works will participate according to a relation to be determined whose formulation testifies to a paradoxical nature: a true science, not a philosophy; but a transcendental science of a new genre of essence, not a science of facts, whether “ontic” or “positive.” Essence is the traditional object of philosophy and that through which it claims to be distinguished from science: how could the latter, while still remaining science, take an essence for its object?
We think that the means of resolving the most general antinomy, that of science and philosophy, exists beyond philosophy either as epistemology, or as positivism (=science of philosophy) and that it must be sought beyond the invariant means of ontology, but not outside a dimension of thought and experience which philosophy itself has always postulated without ever recognizing it as such and completely denying its role in science. It is no longer a question of Being, but of the One insofar as it refuses any convertibility with Being and thus must be called “One-of-the-last-instance” so as to render it inalienable in Being. We will return to this point. What signification can it then have for this antinomy, partially derived from the precedent of technics and technology? Can the principles of a unified and not unitary (=philosophical, thus hierarchical) theory be established from the technical and the technological? This new discipline, “founded” in the non-philosophical experience of the One, would require a double support. It would require the support of technology, i.e. of a philosophical type of knowledge of technics, of the logos as techno-logos, consequently the dimension of essence. And it would also require the support of science insofar as the latter is the gauge of an objective, rigorous, analytic and non-interpretative treatment of technical objects and properties and which we will in fact call “technics,” but only under the reserve of this treatment, thus distinguishing this usage of the word “technics” from its philosophical or technological usage. We can thus define the object of this unified theory—if it is possible: for knowledge, it will have to set off again from the One—no longer as the banal and philosophical essence of technics, which supposes given or supposedly given objects as technical, as well as their intentional telos under the philosophical horizon of essence as eidos; but as the Essence (of) technics, a writing designed to indicate an indivisible block, a strict and no longer philosophical or hierarchical identity of technics and essence. This “strict” identity obviously remains to be thought and to be known both with the help of the One and technological discourses; but we can always posit it as our object.